greenland shark size

The two dorsal fins are small. [9][10] Most Greenland sharks observed have been around 2.44–4.8 m (8.0–15.7 ft) long and weigh up to 400 kg (880 lb).[9][10]. Greenland sharks grow to 6.4 m (21 ft) and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) and possibly up to … When feeding on large carcasses, the shark employs a rolling motion of its jaw. The species has been observed at a depth of 2,200 metres (7,200 ft) by a submersible investigating the wreck of the SS Central America that lies about 160 miles (260 km) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The typical lifespan of the Greenland Shark is a lengthy 300-500 years. It can grow to 1,200 kilos [1.3 tons], and 8 meters long [26.2 feet], the size of a great white shark. Greenland sharks are large fish, comparable in size to great whites and in appearance to sleeper sharks. The green laser is from a photogrammetry device used to measure body size (Brynn Devine/YouTube) By Mark 'Crowley' Russell. How old is the Greenland Shark? These characteristics are interpreted as adaptations to living at great water depths. However, most sharks are 3-5 meters in length. The Greenland shark is a thickset species, with a short, rounded snout, small eyes, and very small dorsal and pectoral fins. The Greenland shark is the slowest swimmer for its size and yet it manages to hunt faster swimming seals, probably by surprising them while sleeping. from the from the from the Bathypelagic Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico", "Gross morphology and histology of the olfactory organ of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus", "Eye lens radiocarbon reveals centuries of longevity in the Greenland shark (, The Strange and Gruesome Story of the Greenland Shark, the Longest-Living Vertebrate on Earth, "The Conservation of the Greenland Shark (Somniosus microcephalus): Setting Scientific, Law, and Policy Coordinates for Avoiding a Species at Risk", "Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: a chemical chaperone at atomic resolution", "Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses", "The Greenland Shark Somniosus Microcephalus—Hemoglobins and Ligand-Binding Properties", "The Greenland Shark Is A Very Odd Species Of Shark – Shark Sider", "Iceland's Wild Culinary Traditions: Hákarl and Brennivín", "My Encounter With Hákarl, The Worst Tasting Food On Earth", "Greenland Shark and Elasmobranch Education and Research Group", "Advancing Research for the Management of Long-Lived Species: A Case Study on the Greenland Shark", Greenland Shark and Elasmobranch Education and Research Group, Canadian Museum of Nature SV Greenland Shark, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greenland_shark&oldid=991224687, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2012, Articles with self-published sources from August 2016, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Greenland shark - life expectancy of at least 272 years. Its dorsal and pectoral fins are also quite small, as are the shark's five gill slits in relation to its body. Yet, it’s one of the largest sharks in the world, rivalling the great white in size. These usually sluggish sharks have very unique physical characteristics including their varying … [49], The Greenland shark plays a role in cosmologies of the Inuit from the Canadian Eastern Arctic and Greenland. [5] Greenland shark flesh, treated to reduce toxin levels, is eaten in Iceland as a delicacy known as kæstur hákarl. The species name, microcephalus, is directly translatable to "small head". [3] As an adaptation to living at depth,[4] it has a high concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide in its tissues, which causes the meat to be toxic. Appearance To give you an idea of just how large they are, Greenland sharks usually grow up to 21 feet (6.5 meters), and they weigh approximately 2,000 lbs (900 kilos)! In southern waters the shark is found near continental shelves and slopes and is found at a depth of about 3,937 feet (1,200 m). Greenland sharks have the longest known lifespan of all vertebrate species (estimated to be between 300–500 years), and the species is among the largest extant species of shark. Most Greenland sharks observed have been around 2.44–4.8 m (8.0–15.7 ft) long and weigh up to 400 kg (880 lb). But most … [20] Daily vertical migration between shallower and deeper waters has also been recorded. Coloration can range from pale creamy-gray to blackish-brown and the body is typically uniform in color, though whitish spots or faint dark streaks are occasionally seen on the back.[9]. One day we may understand this elusive and enigmatic creature better. During the winter, the sharks congregate in the shallows (up to 80° north) for warmth but migrate separately in summer to the deeps or even farther south. Greenland sharks grow to 6.4 m (21 ft) and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb),[7][8] and possibly up to 7.3 m (24 ft) and more than 1,400 kg (3,100 lb). Greenland sharks come 3rd in size after whale sharks and great white. The pieces that are cut off exhibit a contraction of their muscular fibres for some time after life is extinct. [31] In 2016, a study based on 28 specimens that ranged from 81 to 502 cm (2.7–16.5 ft) in length used radiocarbon dating of crystals within the lenses of their eyes to determine their approximate ages. [4][39] Its presence in the tissues of both elasmobranch and teleost fish has been found to increase with depth. (Although the flesh of the Greenland shark may be eaten, it is toxic unless properly cleaned and dried or repeatedly boiled prior to consumption.) For this reason Greenland sharks are thought to mostly scavenge food from the seabed, using their strong sense of smell to locate food sources. It is bigger than the better known white shark. Greenland sharks grow to 6.4 m (21 ft) and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb),[7][8] and possibly up to 7.3 m (24 ft) and more than 1,400 kg (3,100 lb). Reaching lengths of 24 feet (7.3 m) and weights of 2200 pounds (1000 kg), the Greenland shark is one of the largest sharks in the ocean. 1. Greenland sharks are found in the Arctic Seas. "The Greenland shark's eye lens is composed of a specialised material - and it contains proteins that are metabolically inert," explained Mr Neilson. https://www.britannica.com/animal/Greenland-shark, Gulf of Maine Research Institute - Greenland shark, Canadian Shark Research Laboratory - Greenland Shark, Florida Museum of Natural History - Greenland shark, Greenland shark - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), International Union for Conservation of Nature. [26] It was speculated that the copepod may display bioluminescence and thus attract prey for the shark in a mutualistic relationship, but this hypothesis has not been verified. The fish are gray to brown in color, sometimes with dark streaks or white spots. [27] These parasites also damage the eyeball in a number of ways, leading to almost complete blindness. [3] The prey found in the stomachs of Greenland sharks is an indicator of the active hunting patterns of these predators. Greenland sharks are really, really big. The sharks have frequently been observed gathering around fishing boats. Wow. The Greenland shark is usually found in the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean between sea level and a depth of 1200 m (3900 ft). Greenland shark, (Somniosus microcephalus), member of the sleeper shark family Somniosidae (order Squaliformes, which also includes the dogfish family, Squalidae) that is the longest-living vertebrate known. Actually, it is difficult to say which one is bigger – our candidate or great white. The Greenland Shark can grow up to be 7 meters long (24 ft) and weigh up to 1 tonne (2,000 pounds). The hemoglobins also have a lower affinity for O2 compared to temperate sharks. Preferring frigid waters from below freezing to about 12°C, the Greenland shark inhabits the depths of the Atlantic to at least 2,200m, and swims under the polar ice cap. Despite its size, the sluggish Greenland shark is easily captured; individuals as long as 16 feet (4.9 meters) have been tempted to the surface with bait and hauled out of the water with little resistance. A Greenland shark, alive today, could have been swimming in the deep in the 1600s. Despite having been around for, well, what seems like forever, the Greenland shark was only recently recognized as the longest-living vertebrate because scientists have been stumped for centuries about how to determine their age. Crustaceans, seabirds, and carrion—as well as terrestrial mammals (such as horses and reindeer) that likely fell through the ice—have been found in stomach analyses of the species. They have short, rounded snouts, small eyes, and small but sharp teeth. Therefore, Greenland sharks' longevity and conservative life history traits, in tandem with their vulnerability to accidental catching and commercial fishing, promotes a growing concern for the sustainability of this species. See how you compare to some of these vulnerable predators that are so crucial to the ocean's health. [17], Like other elasmobranchii, Greenland sharks have high concentrations of the nitrogenous waste products urea and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in their tissues, which increases their buoyancy[37] and function as osmoprotectants. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. They are generalist feeders, consuming a variety of available foods. Greenland shark denticles. The bulky size and small fins of the Greenland shark mean that it is one of the slowest moving fish in the oceans, with scientists calculating that its top speed is around 1.6 miles per hour – about half the speed the average adult walks. pee shark. They rival great white sharks in terms of size. Despite its large size it has many small features, such as a small head, short snout and small eyes. The Greenland Shark can grow up to be 7 meters long (24 ft) and weigh up to 1 tonne (2,000 pounds). Greenland sharks were fished commercially from the 19th century until 1960. Greenland sharks are known to frequent the dark waters of the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. These upper jaw teeth act as an anchor while the lower jaw proceeds to cut massive chunks out of their prey for a quick and easy meal. [11], The Greenland shark is an apex predator and mostly eats fish, and has been observed actively hunting seals in Canada. ... filter-feeding shark is the largest known fish species alive. The Greenland shark’s metabolism is as slow as its lifestyle. [6], The Greenland shark is one of the largest living species of shark. Greenland sharks are cold-water species that can grow to impressive lengths. Scientists have captured some very rare footage of Greenland sharks during a research project into population distribution in … [30][32][33] Efforts to conserve Greenland sharks are particularly important due to their extreme longevity, long maturation periods, and the heightened sensitivity of large shark populations. [51], 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60213A12321694.en, "Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters", "Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths", "Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna", "A review of Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) studies in the Kongsfjorden area, Svalbard Norway", "Greenland Shark (Somniosus microcephalus) Stomach Contents and Stable Isotope Values Reveal an Ontogenetic Dietary Shift", "Moose-eating shark rescued in Newfoundland harbour", "Clash of the fiercest predators as shark eats polar bear", "Comment on the ecophysiology of the Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus", "The slowest fish: Swim speed and tail-beat frequency of Greenland sharks", "Slow Sharks Sneak Up on Sleeping Seals (and Eat Them)? [20] Daily vertical migration between shallower and deeper waters has also been recorded. It can reach a length of 7 metres (23 feet) and a weight of 1,025 kg (2,260 pounds) when fully grown, but most are between 2 and 4 metres … [47] The legend says that an old woman washed her hair in urine and dried it with a cloth. [19], Greenland sharks migrate annually based on depth and temperature rather than distance, although some do travel. [18] Because this top speed is only half that of a typical seal in their diet, biologists are uncertain how the sharks are able to prey on the faster seals. Despite its large size it has many small features, such as a small head, short snout and small eyes. See more ideas about Greenland shark, Shark, Greenland. Jonathan travels to Canada in search of the Greenland shark, a huge, lethargic shark that lives in arctic waters. [48] Another legend tells of a girl whose father cut off her fingers while drowning her, with each finger turning into a sea creature, including Skalugsuak. [4][40], The blood of Greenland sharks contains three major types of hemoglobin, made up of two copies of α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark, grey shark, or by the Kalaallisut name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks"), closely related to the Pacific and southern sleeper sharks. The shark can grow up to 21 ft (6.4 m). is questionable when Greenland sharks are released with trailing fishing gear. A Greenland shark near the ocean surface after its release from research vessel Sanna in northern Greenland. All sleeper sharks – out of which the Greenland shark is but one species – are known for their slow swimming and low activity levels. Despite our dataset representing the largest sample size of Greenland sharks genetically surveyed to date, the elevated number of rare mtDNA haplotypes and the few individuals representing them, along with our failure to recover two previously reported Greenland shark haplotypes (Murray et al., 2008), suggests we have yet to capture the full extant genetic diversity of Greenland sharks. The Greenland shark can have litters of up to 10 pups. Greenland sharks grow to 6.4 m (21 ft) and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), and possibly up to 7.3 m (24 ft) and more than 1,400 kg (3,100 lb). [22] Four previous records of Greenland shark were reported from Cuba and the northern Gulf of Mexico. These sharks can grow up to 23 ft. long, a few feet longer than the largest great white shark. The species name, microcephalus, is directly translatable to "small head". Physiology. The Greenland shark is one of the largest sharks in the world and is the largest arctic fish. If the meat is eaten without pretreatment, the ingested TMAO is metabolized into trimethylamine, which can produce effects similar to extreme drunkenness. Considering that the Greenland shark is one of the largest shark species around, growing up to 6.4m, the ‘small head’ possibly refers to a small brain, relative to body size. A Greenland shark that was captured and tagged off Greenland in 1936 was recaptured 16 years later. Greenland sharks are considered to be a near-threatened species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In size it approaches that of the white shark, but its head and teeth are smaller. Broad‐scale changes in the Arctic ecosystem as a consequence of climate change have led to increased attention on trophic dynamics and the role of potential apex predators such as S. microcephalus in the structure of Arctic marine food … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The massive Greenland shark was found in the North Atlantic Ocean by scientists who estimated it is up to 512 years old. Males are typically smaller than females. Greenland Sharks can also live for a very long time, some scientists have estimated that the larger sharks are over 200 years old based on how much they grow in size per year. Jun 23, 2020 - Explore Mark Madsen's board "Greenland Shark" on Pinterest. The 48-52 lower teeth are interlocking and are broad and square, containing short, smooth cusps that point outward. There are no known predators of adult Greenland sharks because of their very large size. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. There are no known predators of adult Greenland sharks because of their very large size. The flesh of the Greenland Shark is also poisonous and eating them can cause intestinal distress and neurological effects very similar to extreme drunkenness. Circle (size 14/0, 0 offset) hooks were used throughout the study. Recent research found that Greenland sharks can live upwards of 300 years. [42][43], The meat can be treated for safe consumption by boiling in several changes of water, drying, or fermenting for several months to produce kæstur hákarl. [13], Greenland sharks, because of their slow speeds, often hunt prey that is asleep. [20] Daily vertical migration between shallower and deeper waters has also been recorded. And, if we are to believe Crantz, this motion is to be observed three days after, if the part is trod on or struck. This specific shark, one of 28 Greenland sharks to be study by the researchers, was estimated at 18 feet length and weighed over a ton, which means it could be somewhere in the range of 272 and 512 years of age. Greenland sharks are absurdly slow and mostly blind, yet they may have spread far beyond the Arctic waters they are known from. [9][15] The Greenland shark is known to be a scavenger, and is attracted by the smell of rotting meat in the water. Greenland sharks are cold-water species that can grow to impressive lengths. [12], Greenland sharks have also been found with remains of seals, polar bears, moose,[14] and reindeer (in one case an entire reindeer body) in their stomachs. The dorsal fins lack the rigid frontal spine found in some other sharks. The Greenland sharks live in very deep water in total darkness, which makes them incredibly difficult to observe and, therefore, they are considered something of a mystery. This shark reaches a maximum length of about 640 cm (21 feet), although it may grow up to 730 cm (24 feet). [45][46], The Greenland shark's poisonous flesh has a high urea content, which gave rise to the Inuit legend of Skalugsuak, the first Greenland shark. They are the slowest swimming fish species for their size with a normal cruising speed of about 30cm or a foot a second, 1.2 kmh (3/4 of a mph) rising to a fastest cruising speed of just over twice this, just about anything they might want to eat swims faster than them. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [24][25], The shark is often colonized by the copepod Ommatokoita elongata, which attaches itself to the shark's eyes. They have a slow growth rate, late maturity period, and low fecundity, making the management and conservation of this species very important. [26][28] The shark occupies what tends to be a very deep environment seeking its preferable cold water (−0.6 to 12 °C or 30.9 to 53.6 °F) habitat.[1]. The Greenland shark actually belongs to a group of sharks called the "sleeper sharks", which all have similar characteristics. How old can the Greenland shark get? The shark ranges in depths of 0-3,937 feet (0 to 1,200 m) and temperatures of 34-68°F (1 to 12°C). The medium gray to nearly black Greenland shark has two dorsal, or top, fins of equal size but no anal fin. When hoisted upon deck, it beats so violently with its tail, that it is dangerous to be near it, and the seamen generally dispatch it, without much loss of time. Though currently unknown, if we were to guess we would say that sharks probably have a lifespan similar to our own – around 70 to 100 years. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. The species is primarily found in the cold-water environments of the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic, from Baffin Bay eastward to the Barents Sea, but its range also extends southward to the North Sea and the waters adjacent to the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. [17] It swims at 1.22 km/h (0.76 mph), with its fastest cruising speed only reaching 2.6 km/h (1.6 mph). The weight of a big individual can be 3100 lb (1400 kg). Image credit: Julius Nielsen According to the results of the analysis – which has a probability rate of about 95 percent – the sharks were at least 272 years old, and could be as much as 512 years old (!) The Greenland shark is very rarely observed because of its bathybenthic environment that is inaccessible to divers. Yet, it’s one of the largest sharks in the world, rivalling the great white in size. It’s been around for hundreds of millions of years as a species. [17] About ten pups per litter is normal, each initially measuring some 38–42 cm (15–17 in) in length. The meat is then dug up and hung up in strips to dry for several more months. Never- theless, its ability to use its jaws with effect is testified by many reliable observers. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The Greenland shark is one of the largest cartilaginous fishes. Greenland Sharks are the only true sub-Arctic shark and they live … Greenland sharks average in size from 244 to 427 cm (8-14) feet with females being the larger sex. While they fail to rival the filter feeding whale shark and basking shark, both of which can measure over 40 ft. long, these sharks are some of the largest carnivorous species.These sharks can grow up to 23 ft. long, a few feet longer than the largest great white shark.Read on to learn about the Greenland shark. Their dorsal and pectoral fins are also quite small, as are their gill slits in relation to their body size. It is speculated that due to embryonic metabolism dealing with reproduction, this only allows for a limited litter size of around 10 pups. ... Greenland shark. — um jammer trans g (@joffeorama) August 30, 2017 Reaction from Verge staff to the Greenland shark Twitter thread. The Greenland shark’s metabolism is as slow as its lifestyle. On average, adult Greenland sharks are 6.4 m (21 ft) long and weigh 1000 kg (2200 lb), but some specimens reach 7.3 m (24 ft) and 1400 kg (3100 lb). The young are born at a size of 38 cm (15 in). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. comparison greenland shark size sleeper microcephalus somniosus. Weight:400 kg (882 lb) on average, maximum known weight 1,000 kg (2,205 lb), maximum possible weight 1,400 kg (3,086 lb) 3. Greenland sharks are not considered dangerous to humans, in part because they live in regions where people do not typically swim; the only known report of a possible attack by a Greenland shark on a person dates to 1859. It can reach a length of 7 metres (23 feet) and a weight of 1,025 kg (2,260 pounds) when fully grown, but most are between 2 and 4 metres (6.5 and 13 feet). Greenland Sharks have extremely rough skin. Bulky, with a rounded snout, small fins relative to body size, and gray to brown coloration, Greenland sharks are similar to spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), except that they lack a spine in front of the second dorsal fin and usually the one on the first dorsal fin. The distribution of this species is mostly restricted to the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean. Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus is a potentially important yet poorly studied cold‐water species inhabiting the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... An injured ring seal escaping from a polar bear as a Greenland shark awaits. The Greenland Shark is the world's fourth-largest shark, and the world's second-largest predatory shark, the largest being the Great White Shark. Ancient, slow and largely unknown pretty much sums up the Greenland shark. However, the fish migrate to deeper water further south during the summer. Traditionally, this is done by burying the meat in boreal ground for 6–8 weeks, which presses the TMAO out of the meat and also results in partial fermentation. But for now, it disappears back into the darkness, as quietly and slowly as it appeared. In that time, it had grown 6 cm longer. Size of a Greenland shark. marine animal CC BY-SA 4.0. The Greenland shark is ovoviviparous – producing young by means of eggs which are hatched within the body of the female. They eat a wide variety of fishes, seals, and other prey within these ecosystems and have an important role in the intricate food web. All sleeper sharks – out of which the Greenland shark is but one species – are known for their slow swimming and low activity levels. Somniosus microcephalus. These three types show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, an important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. Omissions? The Greenland shark is brown, gray and black in colour and may have dark lines or white spots along its flanks or on the dorsal side. The 48-52 teeth of the upper jaw are very thin and pointed, lacking serrations. in other words: this shark's body is full of pee. No recorded Great White Shark has reached the length of the Greenland Shark. The cloth blew into the ocean to become Skalugsuak. The gill openings are very small for the species' great size. pee shark. [36] It has been estimated that due to their extreme longevity, Greenland sharks can have 200 to 700 pups during their lifetime. The Greenland Sleeper Shark — Somniosus microcephalus — is a rather large, and strange, species of shark native to the icy waters of the North Atlantic, and is especially common in the region around Iceland and Greenland. No other vertebrate known has a life span as long as this species; radiocarbon dating of isotopes in the shark’s eye-lens nuclei suggests that the oldest Greenland sharks may be more than 500 years old. Illustration courtesy Fishes of the Western North Atlantic (1948) Size, Age, and Growth. They are thought to prefer colder, deeper environments but may be found anywhere between the sea surface and depths of 2,200 meters (about 7,200 feet). Greenland sharks are rarely encountered by humans. And even more extraordinary, it’s believed to grow over 200 years old. [50], As both scavengers and active predators, Greenland sharks have established themselves as apex predators in Arctic ecosystems. The species has also been dubbed: the sleeper shark, ground shark, grey shark, gurry shark, and the Inuit name for it is Eqalussuaq. The weight of a big individual can be 3100 lb (1400 kg). The Greenland shark belongs to the family of sleeper sharks, so named due to their sluggish behaviour, and is related to dogfish sharks. If you are looking for a Greenland shark, it is important to … As a result of their low productivity and extreme longevity, this species is particularly susceptible to overfishing. They're similar in size to great whites, and are part of the "sleeper shark" family due to their slow-moving nature. Still image from the Greenland shark footage. While not much is known about the mysterious species, it's believed they can live for upwards of 272 years. This study investigated the effect of the type of fishing line used in the gangion and gangion breaking strength on catch rates of Greenland shark and Greenland halibut in bottom set longlines. The species was valued for its liver oil; about 114 litres (30 gallons) of liver oil can be obtained from a large specimen (see also fish oil). Greenland Sharks have a total length between 12’-24’ (3.7-7.3 m) and an overall weight in the range of 1950-2250 lb (885-1020 kg). [16], Although such a large shark could easily consume a human swimmer, the frigid waters it typically inhabits make the likelihood of attacks on humans very low, and no cases of predation on people have been verified. [12][13], Greenland sharks are recognized as the longest-lived vertebrates on earth. Its measurements suggest that Greenland sharks grow at a rate of 0.5–1 cm (0.2–0.4 in) per year. Long-finned eel - often live to over 60. Greenland sharks, which only grow 1cm a … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Greenland shark is one of the largest sharks in the world and is the largest arctic fish. In the early 1900s as many as 30,000 Greenland sharks were caught a year. The Greenland Shark can grow to 24 feet in length, and over 3000 pounds in weight. In the present day the annual take is far smaller; small-scale subsistence fisheries in the Arctic harvest fewer than 100 individuals annually, and roughly 1,200 are caught accidentally in fishing trawls. This shark prefers cold-water temperatures and will usually only ascend from the depths if the surface drops to around 33 degrees Fahrenheit. Similar toxic effects occur with the related Pacific sleeper shark, but not in most other shark species. Occasionally, sled dogs that eat the flesh are unable to stand up because of this effect. It reaches an enormous size and despite its lethargic appearance, it is a predator capable of short bursts of speed, and under certain conditions may hunt seals and even larger mammals including the beluga whale. They are carnivorous, and their diet is often made up of several different types of fishes, including smaller sharks, eels, flounders, and sculpins. The young are born at a size of 38 cm (15 in). It inhabits the cold northern seas, and is rarely seen elsewhere. The Greenland shark is one of the largest living species of shark. The Greenland shark is one of the largest cartilaginous fishes. [21], In August 2013, researchers from Florida State University caught a Greenland shark in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth of 1,749 m (5,738 ft), where the water temperature was 4.1 °C (39.4 °F). In 1988, an unmanned submarine spotted a 20 feet (6 m) long male Greenland shark at a dep… The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark, grey shark, or by the Kalaallisut name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks"), closely related to the Pacific and southern sleeper sharks.

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