Israel is in the Middle East on the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank. The Great Desert ... Israel in the First Century. , Israel is divided east–west by a mountain range running north to south along the coast. , There are 242 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Golan Heights, and 29 in East Jerusalem. South of the Dead Sea, the Jordan continues through the rift, where it now forms the ʿArava Valley (Hebrew: “savannah”), an arid plain that extends to the Red Sea port of Elat. To the north is the lake's greatest depth. National GDP: $237,000,000,000 Government of Israel Type of Government: parliamentary democracy Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration) Divisions: The country of Israel is divided into six districts including Northern, Haifa, Center, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Southern, and Judea and Samaria. Physical map Physical map illustrates the mountains, lowlands, oceans, lakes and rivers and other physical landscape features of Israel. Israel is a small country in the Middle East about the size of the state of New Jersey. The Golan Heights and all of Jordan are part of the Arabian Plate, while the Galilee, West Bank, Coastal Plain, and Negev along with the Sinai Peninsula are on the African Plate. Central Hill Country. The State of Israel is the only Jewish nation in the modern period, and the region that now falls within its borders has a lengthy and rich history that dates from prebiblical times. Gaza, a small coastal strip between Israel and Egypt, is claimed by the Palestine National Authority, but under de facto rule by the militant group Hamas. Assumes 35,000 Palestinians estimated by B'Tselem to be living in the Seam Zone are included in the 150,000 OCHA estimate", "West Bank population.  The Jordan River continues its course from the southern end of Lake Tiberias (forming the boundary between the West Bank and Jordan) to its terminus in the highly saline Dead Sea. inland.. American Friends of the Tel Aviv University, Statistical Abstract of Israel, No. The land is naturally divided into four narrow zones running north and south. 2010 was the hottest year in the history of Israel with absolute record high in several places in August. More than 70% of the average rainfall in Israel falls between November and March; June through September are usually rainless. Israel straddles the Asian and African continents, but is considered to be in Western Asia. Omissions? Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel, and the Golan in the north. It lies at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. Running the length of the country from north to south along its eastern border … The north of the Negev contains the Judean Desert, which, at its border with Jordan, contains the Dead Sea which, at −417 m (−1,368 ft) is the lowest point on Earth. Figure shown calculated from other figures sourced on page", "West Bank population. 2. The pear-shaped lake is 23 kilometres (14 mi) long from north to south, with a maximum width of 13 kilometres (8 mi) in the north, covering 166 square kilometers (64 sq mi). , The most catastrophic earthquakes occurred in 31 BCE, 363, 749, and 1033 CE, that is every ca. The Mediterranean coastal plain: A fertile (and mostly flat) coastal plain fronts the Mediterranean Sea coastline of Israel. This tectonic disposition leads to a relatively high seismic activity in the region. Students plan a menu for a religious ceremony in accordance with food rituals. The Great Sea. Israel, Arabic Isrāʾīl, officially State of Israel or Hebrew Medinat Yisraʾel, country in the Middle East, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.  The central highlands average 610 meters (2,001 ft) in height and reach their highest elevation at Har Meron, at 1,208 meters (3,963 ft), in Galilee near Safed. Even before the mandate, the desire for a Jewish homeland prompted a small number of Jews to immigrate to Palestine, a migration that grew dramatically during the second quarter of the 20th century with the increased persecution of Jews worldwide and subsequent Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. Height : -408 m (Dead Sea) Max.  Summers are very humid along the Mediterranean coast but dry in the central highlands, the Rift Valley, and the Negev Desert. The Coastal Plain. Rugged terrain, running from Judea though Samaria and into upper Galilee. Physical Features of the Land of Israel. The last segment is the Southern Coastal Plain, which extends south around the Gaza Strip.  In the north of this region lie the mountains and hills of Upper Galilee and Lower Galilee, which are generally 500 meters (1,640 ft) to 700 meters (2,297 ft) in height, although they reach a maximum height of 1,208 meters (3,963 ft) at Mount Meron. Culture and Food and Ritual, Oh My! Differences in land elevations relative to the sea level are represented by color. The population of Israel includes Israeli settlers in the West Bank. This online quiz is called Israel Physical Features . Israel on a World Wall Map: Israel is one of nearly 200 countries illustrated on our Blue Ocean Laminated Map of the World. Physical map illustrates the mountains, lowlands, oceans, lakes and rivers and other physical landscape features of Israel. Running the length of the country from north to south along its eastern border is the northern terminus of the Great Rift Valley. However, the Israeli government plans to build artificial islands off the coast to house an airport, a seaport, a desalination plant, a power plant, and a military testing base, as an answer to Israel's lack of space. , The following are selected elevations of notable locations, from highest to lowest:, Israel has a Mediterranean climate with long, hot, rainless summers and relatively short, cool, rainy winters (Köppen climate classification Csa). Israel is located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea in Western Asia.  Small amounts of natural gas and crude oil are present, often too little to merit commercial extraction.  It is ranked 153 on the List of countries and outlying territories by total area.  Israel stretches 424 km (263 mi) from north to south, and its width ranges from 114 km (71 mi) to, at its narrowest point, 15 km (9.3 mi). As observed on the physical map of Israel above, despite its small size, the country has a highly varied topography. , As of 2013, the population of Israel is 8 million, 6,015,000 of them Jewish. Crops and fish farms in the Hula Valley, Israel. , The Negev Desert comprises approximately 12,000 square kilometers (4,633 sq mi), more than half of Israel's total land area. Noses, ears, the usual. The coastal plain is a narrow strip about 115 miles (185 km) long that widens to about 25 miles (40 km) in the south. , The Israeli Coastal Plain stretches from the Lebanese border in the north to Gaza in the south, interrupted only by Cape Carmel at Haifa Bay. The location of Palestine is at the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Area : 20 770 Km2: Water : 2.1 % Lands under cultivation : 21 % Wild pasture lands : 7 % Forests : 6 % Min. Location and Geography.  All rural settlements and many small towns (some of which are dubbed "rurban settlements") are incorporated in regional councils. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Israel Geography 2020 information contained here.  Topographically, it parallels the other regions of the country, with lowlands in the west, hills in the central portion, and the Arava valley as its eastern border. Differences in land elevations relative to the sea level are represented by color. , East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which is a small part of the 6,500 kilometers (4,039 mi)-long Syrian-East African Rift. The DSF forms the transform boundary between the African Plate to the west and the Arabian Plate to the east. Inland to the east, fertile farmland is giving way to growing agricultural settlements and the cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa and their suburbs. , Inland (east) of the coastal plain lies the central highland region. , South of the Kinneret lies the saltwater Dead Sea which forms the border between Israel and Jordan and is 418 meters (1,371 ft) below sea level, making it the lowest water surface on Earth.  With a water capacity estimated at 3 cubic kilometers (0.72 cu mi), it serves as the principal reservoir of the National Water Carrier (also known as the Kinneret-Negev Conduit). Four Longitudinal Zones. Parts of the arid northern Negev, where soil development would not be expected, have windblown loess soils because of proximity to the coastal plain. Description: The Physical Map of Israel showing major geographical features like elevations, mountain ranges, deserts, seas, lakes, plateaus, peninsulas, rivers, plains, landforms and other topographic features. Palestine Geography consists of four regions in the country. Israel has signed many international environmental agreements and is party to:, Israel's rural space includes several unique kinds of settlements, notably the moshav and the kibbutz. These include copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, and manganese. YEHOVAH's true Church is made up of people from physical Israel ONLY -- those predominantly of "fair skin" and "Caucasian in physique and appearance." In the north of the country, the mountains of Galilee constitute the highest part of Israel, reaching an elevation of 3,963 feet (1,208 metres) at Mount Meron (Arabic: Jebel Jarmaq). This game is part of a tournament. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.  The northern Negev receives 300 millimeters (11.8 in) of rain annually and has fairly fertile soils. Israel is ranked 34th in the world in terms of population density with, as noted, a climate of long, hot, rainless summers and relatively short, cool, rainy winters.  Current environmental concerns include the lack of arable land and natural fresh water resources.  The Arabah Valley along the Jordanian border stretches 180 kilometers (112 mi) from Eilat in the south to the tip of the Dead Sea in the north and is very arid with barely 50 millimeters (1.97 in) of rain annually. The Tel Aviv district includes the city of Tel Aviv itself, and a number of neighbouring cities, which are collectively named Gush Dan.. Tel Aviv's domestic airport is Sde Dov in the north-western part of the city. The rivers are supplemented by a spring-fed underground water table that is tapped by wells. Most of the country’s remaining streams are ephemeral and flow seasonally as wadis. Political System Israel, now being a seperate state from Palestine, was first recognized by the US as a new country. It includes country boundaries, major cities, major mountains in shaded relief, ocean depth in blue color gradient, along with many other features. Each district is then further divided into sub-districts. Author of. , Unique to the Negev region are the craterlike makhteshim cirques; Makhtesh Ramon, Makhtesh Gadol and Makhtesh Katan.  Mount Hermon has seasonal snow which covers all three of its peaks in winter and spring. However, supercell thunderstorms and a true F2 tornado hit the Western Galilee in April 2006, causing significant damage and 75 injuries..  While stringent construction regulations are currently in place and recently built structures are earthquake-safe, as of 2007 the majority of the buildings in Israel were older than these regulations and many public buildings as well as 50,000 residential buildings did not meet the new standards and were "expected to collapse" if exposed to a strong quake. Students analyze a variety of maps to create a map of Israel and the Palestinian territories’ physical geography, and reason about Jerusalem’s location. October and November were also dry, and November was almost rainless when it was supposed to be rainy.  Rainfall is unevenly distributed, significantly lower in the south of the country. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel, and the Golan in the north. From AC/DC to Bruce Springsteen, test your knowledge of the origins of various musicians and groups in this quiz. It is the largest natural gas reserve ever discovered in Israel. Figure calculated from other sourced figures in table. The Mount Carmel range, which culminates in a peak 1,791 feet (546 metres) high, forms a spur reaching northwest from the highlands of the West Bank, cutting almost to the coast of Haifa.  The Negev is also sub-divided into five different ecological regions: northern, western and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley. Professor of Sociology, American University, Washington D.C. South of this, running to Nahal Shikma, is the Central Coastal Plain, also known as the Western Negev. Assumes CIA World Factbook number excludes Israeli settlers but includes estimated 225k Palestinians living in East Jerusalem", "Gaza Strip population. Israel fought a series of wars against neighbouring Arab states during the next 35 years, which have resulted in ongoing disputes over territory and the status of refugees. Ancient Israel was located in what scholars refer to as the Ancient Near East, an area around what we today call the Middle East. It includes country boundaries, major cities, major mountains in shaded relief, ocean depth in blue color gradient, along with many other features. The geography of Israel is very diverse, with desert conditions in the south, and snow-capped mountains in the north. An Empire in the Holy Land: Historical Geography of the British Administration in Palestine, 1917–1929, Gideon Biger, St. Martin's Press and Magnes Press, 1994, pp.40–41.  The region is fertile and humid (historically malarial) and is known for its citrus orchards and viticulture. An Empire in the Holy Land: Historical Geography of the British Administration in Palestine, 1917–1929, Gideon Biger, St. Martin's Press and Magnes Press, 1994, pp.46–52. Description: The Physical Map of Israel showing major geographical features like elevations, mountain ranges, deserts, seas, lakes, plateaus, peninsulas, rivers, plains, landforms and other topographic features. Zoom Map.  Along the Mount Carmel range is Hof HaCarmel, or the Carmel Coastal Plain.  South of the Galilee, in the West Bank, are the Samarian Hills with numerous small, fertile valleys rarely reaching the height of 800 meters (2,625 ft). Jerusalem sits on the top of this ridge, east of which lies the Dead Sea graben which is a pull-apart basin on the Dead Sea Transform fault. Israel is on the eastern Mediterranean, bordered by Lebanon and Syria to the north, the Palestine National Authority (West Bank) and Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the south. The southern Negev is mainly sandstone rock with veins of granite. , The numerous limestone and sandstone layers of the Israeli mountains serve as aquifers through which water flows from the west flank to the east. The Sharon Plain is the next section, running from Nahal Taninim (south of Zikhron Ya'akov) to Tel Aviv's Yarkon River. Israel has both types of borders, geometric and physical boundaries. Yad Vashem in Jerusalem is a memorial to Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Tel Aviv. , Prior to the establishment of the British Mandate for Palestine, there was no clear-cut definition of the geographical and territorial limits of the area known as "Palestine."  In winter, precipitation often takes the form of snow at the higher elevations of the central highlands, including Jerusalem. Although the object of dispute during the Crusades, the region, then generally known as Palestine, remained under the sway of successive Islamic dynasties until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, when it was placed under British mandate from the League of Nations. (25 miles) inland. Natural hazards facing the country include sandstorms which sometimes occur during spring in the desert south, droughts which are usually concentrated in summer months, flash floods which create great danger in the deserts due to their lack of notice, and regular earthquakes, most of which are small, although there is a constant risk due to Israel's location along the Jordan Rift Valley. 1. Features of the Land. The soils of Galilee change from calcareous rock in the coastal plain, to Cenomanian and Turonian limestone (deposited from about 99 to 89 million years ago) in Upper Galilee, and to Eocene formations (those dating from about 55 to 35 million years ago) in the lower part of the region. The Great Rift Valley, a long fissure in Earth’s crust, begins beyond the northern frontier of Israel and forms a series of valleys running generally south, the length of the country, to the Gulf of Aqaba. Ancient Israel was not just a dry desert, but a thriving nation with a temperate climate. The coastal plain was the highway of commerce and conquest for centuries. Time-lapse video of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv–Yafo, the Dead Sea, and the Red Canyon. Based on total area of 5,640km2 including East Jerusalem and excluding water.  The area gets 100 millimeters (3.9 in) of rain each year, with inferior and partially salty soils. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to seventy percent of the nation's population.  It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, the northeast by Syria, the east by Jordan and the West Bank, and to the southwest by Egypt. The Sea of Galilee is located beyond this region and is bordered to the east by the Golan Heights, a plateau bordered to the north by the Israeli-occupied part of the Mount Hermon massif, which includes the highest point under Israel's control, a peak of 2,224 meters (7,297 ft). The area was bordered by … Israel has a small coastline on the Red Sea in the south. The deficit in slip that has built up since the 1033 event is sufficient to cause an earthquake of Mw ~7.4. , There are no navigable, artificial waterways in Israel, although the National Water Carrier, a conduit for drinking water, might be classified as such.  In the extreme south, rainfall averages near 30 millimeters (1.18 in) annually; in the north, average annual rainfall exceeds 900 millimeters (35.4 in). How well do you know your musical places? The principal drainage system comprises Lake Tiberias and the Jordan River. The sparsely populated Negev comprises the southern half of Israel. The inland area of central Israel is dominated by the Judean Hills of the West Bank, whilst the central and northern coastline consists of the flat and fertile Israeli coastal plain. …  Given the fragile political situation of the Middle East region and the presence there of major holy sites, a quake reaching magnitude 7 on the Richter scale could have dire consequences for world peace. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Jordan continues south along the eastern edge of the West Bank—now through the Jordan Valley (Hebrew: ʿEmeq HaYarden)—and finally into the highly saline Dead Sea, which, at 1,312 feet (400 metres) below sea level, is the lowest point of a natural landscape feature on the Earth’s surface. I think the only characteristic shared by almost everybody in Israel is that the eyes show you they’ve been out in the sun a lot. Of these areas, Israel has annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, an act not recognized by the international community. [dubious – discuss] Today the Kishon, Alexander and Yarkon again flow year round, and also have parks along their banks. , On average, January is the coldest month with average temperatures ranging from 6 to 15 °C (42.8 to 59.0 °F), and July and August are the hottest months at 22 to 33 °C (71.6 to 91.4 °F), on average across the country. These mountains terminate to the east in an escarpment overlooking the Great Rift Valley. It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. In rare occasions, snow gets to the northern mountain peaks and only in extremely rare occasions even to the coast. Israel Geography Location Israel is located in the Middle East, along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. The highest point in territory internationally recognized as Israeli is Mount Meron at 1,208 meters (3,963 ft). Southern Israel is dominated by the Negev desert, covering some 16,000 square kilometres (6,178 sq mi), more than half of the country's total land area.